Transaction (TX) fees on the Ethereum blockchain are paid by users to miners in exchange for processing and validating their transactions on the network. These fees are denominated in ether (ETH) and are typically measured in units of gas, which is the unit of measurement for computational work done on the Ethereum blockchain.
Every transaction on the Ethereum network must specify a gas limit and a gas price. The gas limit is the maximum amount of computational work that can be done for the transaction, while the gas price determines how much the user is willing to pay for each unit of gas used in the transaction.
The total TX fee for a transaction is calculated by multiplying the gas limit by the gas price. For example, if a transaction has a gas limit of 100,000 and a gas price of 10 Gwei (0.00000001 ETH), the total TX fee for the transaction would be 0.001 ETH.
TX fees on the Ethereum network are dynamic and can vary based on the level of network congestion and the demand for block space. During periods of high demand, TX fees can increase significantly as users compete to have their transactions processed quickly by the network.
Miners are incentivized to process transactions with higher gas prices, as they receive these fees as part of their block rewards. Therefore, users who want their transactions to be processed quickly may need to pay higher gas prices in order to compete with other users.